About Me

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Canberra-based naturalist, conservationist, educator since 1980. I’m passionate about the natural world (especially the southern hemisphere), and trying to understand it and to share such understandings. To that aim I’ve written several books (most recently 'Birds in Their Habitats' and 'Australian Bird Names; origins and meanings'), run tours all over Australia, and for the last decade to South America, done a lot of ABC radio work, chaired a government environmental advisory committee and taught many adult education classes – and of course presented this blog, since 2012. I am the recipient of the Australian Natural History Medallion, the Australian Plants Award and most recently a Medal of the Order of Australia for ‘services to conservation and the environment’. I live happily in suburban Duffy with my partner Louise surrounded by a dense native garden and lots of birds.

Thursday, 26 May 2022

Daisies, Daisies, here's an answer or two

Daisies seem to rule, I often think. There may be in excess of 30,000 species of them, though 24,000 is a more often cited tally. The mighty Flora of Australia is adamant (or at least was in 2015) that they are the largest plant family in the world, eclipsing the orchids which seemingly held the crown until recently, though this perplexes me slightly and I'd like more recent comparative data. Either way these are definitely the Big Two of the plant world. Moreover daisies are found on every continent except Antarctica (as are the orchids) but are also found in every land habitat, from the seashores to the tops of mountain ranges, from deserts to rainforests. They may be tiny annuals, perennial herbs, shrubs or trees. There are at least 1400 Australian species, but this number is a bit lower than was bandied about a decade ago, so maybe we shouldn't get hooked up on the numbers despite my best efforts to do so.

Instead, to begin with here are some daisies in a variety of Australian landscapes, to set the scene so to speak, before talking about what actually makes a daisy. 


Silver Snow Daisies Celmisia sp. in the mist of the Brindabella Mountains,
Namadgi National Park near Canberra.
Hoary Sunrays Leucochrysum albicans among the Snow Gums
on Mount Ginini, Namadgi NP.
Alpine Sunrays Leucochrysum alpinum near the roof of Australia,
Kosciuszko National Park.
Rock Daisy Bush Olearia ledifolia, near the top of Mount Wellington overlooking Hobart.
This is a tough, seemingly perpetually windy, icy landscape.
...wet forests... Locally at least many of these daisies are large shrubs and small trees.

Snowy Daisy Bush Olearia lirata, Tidbinbilla Nature Reserve near Canberra.
...temperate grasslands...
Hoary Sunrays Leucochrysum albicans in remnant lowland grassland near Canberra.
Hoary Sunrays again, well north of here in the Liverpool Range on
the central Western Slopes.

Burr daisies Calotis spp., Cocoparra National Park near Griffith NSW,
on the eastern edge of the Western Plains.

on coastal cliffs...

Nullarbor Daisy Brachyscome tatei on the Nullarbor Cliffs at the Head of the Great
Australian Bite in South Australia. Next stop Antarctica! This tough little daisy
is restricted to the arid lime soils of the Nullarbor.

and throughout the arid lands... In the broad swathe of dry habitats that dominate most of the continent, we'd expect to find many daisies, and we do. Some grow on rock or gravel substrates...

Rock Daisy Bush Olearia stuartii is found in rocky gorges throughout much of the arid inland.

Common White Sunray Rhodanthe floribunda growing on the edge of one of the
Breakaways (like the one in the background) near Coober Pedy, northern South Australia.
... and many more grow in pure sand. Here are a few, because I love the deserts and their inhabitants!

Tangled Burr Daisy Calotis erinacea on a red sand dune near Windorah,
south-west Queensland.
Burr Daisies Calotis spp. by the Stuart Highway, far northern South Australia.
Pompom Everlastings Cephalipterum drummondii near Mount Magnet, Western Australia.
The only member of its genus, this spectacular daisy comes in both white and yellow,
the latter form shown below near Murchison River, Western Australia.

Invisible Plant Podolepis capillaris Pinkawillinie National Park, Eyre Peninsula,
South Australia. I love the common name of this one. While it's not obvious here, the
fine wiry stems really can seem to disappear against a background of vegetation.
Streptoglossa sp. (decurrens or odora) Great Sandy Desert, Western Australia.
Poached Egg Daisy Polycalymma stuartii, Kinchega NP, far western NSW.
(The name is more obvious if you imagine the flowers closer up, but better still
wait for the picture which you'll reach in a few more minutes,)
OK, I hope you enjoyed that little tour of some daisies in their homes as much as I did - now let's look at some of the array of themes and variations of daisy 'flowers' and finish here by looking at some of them at work. The basis of a daisy flower (and I'll stop using inverted commas for the term, but they're still there!) is that it's a hoax. By that I mean that the flower we're looking at is not really a flower at all, but lots of tiny flowers (florets) clustered together to be conspicuous to pollinators. This is the 'basic' daisy model, which many species have developed further. The flower cluster comprises many fertile florets emanating from the expanded tip of the flower stem, and may be spherical, or slightly extended, or somewhat flattened. Here are some examples which may be familiar.
Lemon Beauty Heads Callocephalon citrinus Canberra.
This grassland daisy shows well the numberous florets, though the overall head is quite small.
The bigger flower heads of Billy Buttons make the individual florets easier to see.
Craspedia sp., Tinderry Ranges, south of Canberra.
There are many species of Billy Buttons, but their taxonomy is still a bit unclear,
at least to me. They seem to be particularly diverse and conspicuous in the mountains around here.
Yellow Buttons, Chrysocephalum apiculatum, Canberra.

Blanket Bush Bedfordia arborescens, Namadgi National Park.
This small tree of the wet mountain gullies of the south-east is one of Australia's biggest daisies.
The flower clusters are not especially conspicuous but the fern gullies don't have many flowers
compared with more open drier forests, so perhaps it's not necessary to try as hard!
Most daisies go further into showiness than just producing these clusters of fertile florets however. Have a look for instance at this spectacular Showy Copperwire Daisy from the high country (though it does occur at lower altitudes too).
Podolepis jaceoides, Namadgi National Park. A meadow of these in late summer
produces a truly spectacular display.
But what are we seeing here? Centrally we can still see the fertile florets, but surely those are petals surrounding them and catching our eye from quite a distance? Well no - petals surround a single flower, not a bundle of numerous flowers. These are more florets, but this time sterile ones called ray florets whose sole purpose is attract attention to the crucial fertile disc florets. Here's another example.
Yam Daisy or Murnong Microseris lanceolata, Canberra Nature Park. This used to be abundant
and a very important food source for Indigenous people, but with the loss of the grasslands
and grassy woodlands they are no longer common.
These all-yellow flowers are certainly showy, but think how much more so they'd be in contrasting colours. And guess what?
Spoon-leafed Daisy Brachyscome spathulata, high in Namadgi National Park.
Now we have purple ray florets calling attention to the yellow disc florets.
Here are a couple of other variations.

Ovens Everlasting Ozothamnus stirlingii, Namadgi National Park,
where it is common in the high wet forests. Like the Blanket Bush previously,
another wet forest shrub, this is not as showy as many of the others.

Poached Egg Daisy Polycalymma stuartii near Erldunda, southern Northern Territory.
(We met this one earlier while introducing daisies growing from desert sand.)
Olearia ferressii (it has no common name that I can find), Kata Tjuta, Central Australia.
It has the same white-around-yellow pattern as the Poached Egg Daisy, but quite
different floret structures.
But other daisies yet have come up with another trick in order to be more noticeable. They use the same principle as the colourful ray florets, but instead they use stiff glossy bracts, which are modified leaves, to achieve the effect. These are mostly known as paper daisies or everlastings (it is the bracts which are long-lasting, not the fertile florets).
Alpine Sunrays Leucochrysum alpinum high in Namadgi National Park.
Alpine Everlastings Xerochrysum subundulata in alpine Koscuiszko National Park.
Pink Everlastings Schoenia cassiniana Kalbarri NP, Western Australia.
Surely one of the loveliest daisies, and one of the few with pink bracts..

It's hardly worth asking if all this effort to attract insect pollinators works - the myriad of daisy species and individual plants is proof of that! It's still nice to see some of them going about it though. A range of native insect groups are involved, including bees...

These photos were taken at the Australian National Botanic Gardens, unless
stated otherwise. And if the insect isn't named it's because I can't! Sorry...
Hoverfly Melangyna sp., above on Murnong in Canberra Nature Park,
below on Silver Snow Daisy high in Namadgi NP.
Hoverflies, and locally especially this one, are very important polliators
of native plants, including daisies.
Fly on Hoary Sunray.
Bee Fly Comptosia apicalis on paper daisy in our yard.
Billy Button high in the Snow Gums with an entourage of small wasps.
... and of course butterflies...
Yellow Admiral Vanessa itea on Sticky Everlasting Xerochrysum viscosum.
Note the long proboscis coiled out of the way.
Painted Lady Vanessa kershawi, with proboscis inserted deep among the florets.
A transparent butterly on Senecio sp. (I think) in the Ecuadorian cloud forests
north of Quito.

All of this cross-fertilisation between flowers of the same daisy species is for the sole purpose of producing seeds for the next daisy generation. But how to distribute those seeds far from the parent plants? Needless to say, daisies are very good at this too. They have two major strategies (though as far as I know, each genus specialises in just one of them). I'm sure you're familiar with both. When I was a child in Adelaide, in summer the sky would be seemingly full of drifting white fluffballs which we called Father Christmases. They were in fact the highly efficient seed distribution mechanism of the Scotch Thistles, a daisy which covered vast areas of abused land to the north.

Seed heads of Salsify Tragopogon porrifolius, a daisy which is grown for its edible root,
and which is often found growing as a weed. Very soon the individual 'parachutes'
will break free, each carrying a single seed far on the wind.
This, in various forms, is the dispersal strategy of most of the daisies I know of. Both the following examples are common local natives.
Cauliflower Bush Cassinia  longifolia ready to cast its seeds to the wind.
Clustered Everlasting Chrysocephalum semipapposum. The disc florets have done their
job and died back, leaving the seeds with their fluffy appendages to float away.
The other daisy seed dispersal strategy involves harnessing involuntary animals which get the spiny or sticky seed appendages tangled in fur or feathers (or socks!). Eventually the burrs fall apart and the seed drops by the track.
Burr Daisies (Calotis spp.) with the sticky burrs forming from dried flowers.
Extracting them from socks is both difficult and painful!
Well I'm sure you agree that this is enough for today, wonderful as daisies are. That's not all though, and I'll conclude the story next time with a stroll through selections of the daisy family album, mostly Australian but also some from further afield. Thanks for reading this far, and I hope you can join me then.


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Thursday, 5 May 2022

Three Small Dry South African Parks; three visits that were far too brief!

As my more assiduous readers may recall - and I understand that there are a few of those! - in 2019, not long before COVID profoundly altered travel, we made a very special trip to East and South Africa to celebrate a new stage in our life. We were guided (excellently) in Kenya and Tanzania but hired a car and did our own thing in western South Africa. I've reported on aspects of the odyssey here of course, but today I want to share with you three much more modest little reserves in the arid north-west of South Africa. As suggested in the title, we had very little time in each of them and they all deserved more, but even those brief visits were memorable. Maybe more time, another time?

This country is arid, with dunes to the east and vast piles of tumbled granites to the west. Some of it reminds me strongly of parts of inland Australia. We loved it, but were restricted by time and by our little 2WD hire car. Here are three little reserves, two of which were quite unexpected, in which we spent a total of just two nights and all of which we'd happily return to for longer.

From east  to west (the order in which we visited them) W = Witsand Nature Reserve,
G = Geogap Nature Reserve, B = Brandrivier private reserve and farm.

Witsand was completely spur of the moment. We were in Upington for a couple of nights and not especially enjoying it. It is a busy industrial frontier town and at the time cold and rainy. Our search for the 'River Park' ended in a housing estate, and we then and there decided to forfeit the second night of our rather strange accommodation and book a cabin at Witsand Nature Reserve, supposedly only 100k away. Well, that turned out to be only to the little town of Grooblershoop, with another hundred after that. Our GPS - for which we paid almost as much per day as for the car - was incompetent and unreliable throughout the trip, and our excellent Essential Birding Guide to Western South Africa was well out of date for this one (not its fault as I'd bought it 14 years previously). It was a frustrating and stressful trip and we'd pretty much given up on finding the reserve when we stumbled across a sign for the first time after some 70k of signless dirt (encouraged only by a friendly farmer), and arrived late in the afternoon, hours after we'd hoped. As we drove along the park boundary a pair of magnificent Kudu effortlessly hurdled the high fence, followed by a very athletic female who performed a side-twisting leap between the top two wires.and from then on it was all very good.

As the name suggests, this is a sandy landcape, dominated by hardy arid-adapted
plants, and especially by Camelthorn Vachellia (fomerly Acacia) erioloba.
Sunset, above and below; in my opinion nowhere does sunsets quite like the deserts.
Early morning view from the dunes, across the white sands which give the reserve its name
to the distant red sands of the Kalahari Desert.
Rocky hills supported tough succulents.
Euphorbia dregeana, a common and distinctive smooth succulent, found only
in this part of the world.
Perhaps this country is not to everyone's taste, but it definitely was to ours. The accommodation comprised a big living room and kitchen, and bedrooms and bathroom off an open verandah, with braai (barbeque to us) and busy bird bath outside. It was much bigger than we needed, but nothing smaller was available and we enjoyed it. Unfortunately, though unavoidably, we'd already booked our next accommodation (at the superb Augrabies Falls NP) so could only stay a night at Witsand. From the verandah and lounge room windows we watched a family of Yellow Mongooses (including a confusing grey one) and a parade of birds.
Acacia Pied Barbet Tricholaema leucomelas above
and Fiscal Flycatcher Melaenornis silens below at the water bath.
Both common species in this part of the world, and not considerate
of the photographer's needs re the sun, but a pleasure nonetheless.
Familiar Chats Oenanthe familiaris are indeed familiar around dwellings,
chasing insects and generally ignoring us. This one was no exception.
At the foot of the dune, where the photo above of the distant Kalahari was taken, was a hide with another watering point but we failed to see anything there, which was surprising given the general dryness (drought as well as the usual nature of the area) but perhaps recent showers were responsible. However there was plenty of activity around the carpark and on the dunes, including a magnificent Gemsbok which climbed the dune from the other side while we were there.
Gemsbok Oryx gazella, a very large and generally superb arid land
antelope from dry South Africa and Namibia. It is the largest of six
closely related species, weighing up to 250kg. This one showed a mild
interest in us, but not nearly as much as we showed it!
Other less dramatic animals also shared our early morning dune walk.

Kalahari Scrub Robin Cercotricha paena, a flycatcher unrelated to either
Old World or Australian robins.

Cape Glossy Starlings Lamprotornis nitens are widespread and common but nonetheless
stunners, and we never tired of them. This one caught the morning sun beautifully.

Unfortunately I was unable to lay lens on the ever-busy Dusky Sunbird Cinnyris fuscus
which was feeding on the mistletoe, but the flowering plant is worth admiring in its own right.
And in the carpark was an excellent example of one of the most amazing bird nests in the world, the huge colonial structures of the whizzing little Sociable Weavers Philetairus socius, which I also find hard to get an acceptable photo of.
These little weavers build the largest nest of any bird, containing up to a hundred families.
Other animals were easy to see along the reserve tracks...
Springboks Antidorcas marsupialis of course are the animal emblem of South Africa, but
are only found in the arid west of the country and north into the Kalahari. This one looks
quite sleek on very little forage.
Scrub Hares Lepus saxatilis are restricted to southern Africa
Steenboks Raphicerus campestris are more widespread, extending to East Africa. They are
a small antelope, standing no more than 60cm high. By now the light had almost gone!
... and around the Visitors' Centre.
The White-browed Sparrow Weaver Plocepasser mahali is a handsome weaver
which, like other weavers, nests colonially (but, unlike the Sociable Weaver, in separate nests).
The Crimson-breasted Shrike (or Boubou) Laniarius atrococcineus is a truly spectacular
bird and the national bird of Namibia. Indeed we were so excited to see it as
we were leaving the park that I managed to leave my faithful field guide on
the roof of the car, and didn't notice its absence until I needed it later that day at Augrabies Falls!
Luckily I was able to replace it with a newer edition later at Springbok.
Even the drive out provided a couple of worthwhile stops on nearby roads.
Namaqua Sandgrouse Pterocles namaqua. I'm a big fan of the desert-loving sandgrouse,
and these gorgeously patterned birds were a delight.
Striped Ground Squirrel Euxerus erythropus, which was sun-basking by its burrow
and popped back after we pulled up to admire it. This one is found over virtually
the entire continent, and was our last animal sighting for Witsand.
Had we known about Witsand earlier we'd have booked a couple of nights there in our original planning, but  such discoveries are what travel is about and our evening and morning there were well worth the angst of getting there!

From Witsand we drove to Augrabies Falls and after an excellent stay there drove another 300k further west to the delightfully named and busy town of Springbok in Namaqualand. I'd visited the nearby Goegap Nature Reserve on my previous visit in 2005, and wanted to show Lou this wonderful semi-desert rocky landscape. We had only a couple of hours before it closed but time enough to do the 13k all-vehicle loop (and how I'd love to do the longer 4WD circuit one day). The 15,000 hectare reserve was proclaimed and fenced in the 1960s, and some of the original wildlife was reintroduced.

Spring in Namaqualand is famous for its flowers, but we were there in June - and in drought. Some aloes provided colour though. 

Typical Goegap landscape - it's always dry of course, but not this dry.
I'm not sure of the identity of this aloe, but it looked magnficent among the Goegap rocks.

The real highlights however were both mammals. Just after we entered the reserve a couple of little heads appeared above a bush in an especially open sandy area; I assumed they were spurfowl but then, to our delight, three Meerkats Suricata suricatta burst into a gallop across the sand with tails in the air and vanished into a culvert under the road. They were the only ones we saw for the trip and we were thrilled.

The other mammal highlight was much bigger and more relaxed about us, and equally exciting.
Mountain Zebras Equus zebra are zebras of the hot dry rocky mountains, surviving in isolated
scattered populations mostly in Namibia. There are less than 3000 left in the wild. This was
the third zebra species (of three altogether) that we saw for our trip, which pleased us greatly.
These differ from the far more common Plains Zebra most obviously in the unstriped belly.
From here it was a short drive south along the highway to our Air BnB at Brandrivier. We were originally going to just stay in Springbok, but this promising-looking accommodation on private property popped up during our search and we crossed our fingers and booked it - good choice!

The walls are canvas, but you wouldn't call it a tent! It is set high above the highway which goes through the pass below. You can hear trucks sometimes, but they feel pretty remote. The magnificent verandah looks out over the valley one way, and up into the rocky hill behind. There's an excellent gas barbeque on the verandah and an outside shower among the rocks (plus a good indoor bathroom). Solar panels provide lights and there's a fridge. It certainly warranted more than a one-night stay!

Looking over the valley - the highway runs in front of the hills - above and below.

View of the rocks behind (and the barbeque).
From the balcony we watched the local wildlife.
The engaging furry-tailed Dassie Rats Petromus typicus loafed on the ledges and hid in the
rock crevices just behind the cabin. They are ancient Africans, the only member of their entire
family, found in arid rocky sites from here north through western Namibia to Angola.
This one fooled me for a while, until I discovered that the Mountain Wheatear
Myrmecocichla monticola, which I know as a black and white bird, also
comes in grey!

Layard's Warbler Curruca layardi, an Old World warbler which is relatively uncommon,
though quite widespread. I'm not sure if it was searching the flowering shrub
for insects or fruits - either is possible.
This is the lovely flower of the shrub above. I assume that it's in the Mytaceae family,
but beyond that I have idea - any assistance welcomed!
And the activity didn't end with nightfall, even in the cabin. Unfortunately I have no way of identifying either of these little residents, so if you can do so I'd be glad to hear from you.

This little chap came out to clean up the barbeque even before it cooled,
and before I had a chance to do so. I'm pretty sure it's not a House Mouse,
but I don't what the options are there.
Meet Bibron's Thick-toed Gecko Chondrodactylus bibronii (thanks to Roman below for pointing me
in the right direction). This beauty appeared after dark on the window frame,
though we don't know where it was lurking prior to that. It's a big gecko and apparently
relatively common across southern Africa.

So, three very different little reserves, each a treasure. This is one occasion when I'd be a bit surprised (pleasantly of course!) if anyone reading this has visited any of these reserves. If I'm wrong please let me know of your experience there. Otherwise, if you get the chance to visit any or all of them, try and give yourself more time in each of them than we did on this occasion - they, and you, richly deserve it. 


I love to receive your comments and in future will be notifying you personally by email when a new posting appears, if you'd like me to. All current subscribers have been added to this mailing list and have already been contacted. This will mean one email every three weeks at the current rate of posting. I promise never to use the list for any other purpose and will never share it.
Should you wish to be added to it, just send me an email at calochilus51@internode.on.net. You can ask to be removed from the list at any time,or could simply mark an email as Spam, so you won't see future ones.