|Granite-strewn alpine zone, Kosciuszko National Park.|
|El Cajas National Park, Ecuador; here in the tropics the tree-line is close to 4000masl.|
The habitat is known here as paramo.
|Andes north of Cusco, Peru. Again the altitude is 4000masl, but here we can see the trees pushing higher up the mountains in the shelter of gullies. Locally this is called puna.|
|Torres del Paine National Park, Chilean Patagonia.|
At 51 degrees south, the foreground is less than 300 metres above sea level.
In Australia the true alpine zone comprises around 0.01% of the land surface, and most of that is in Tasmania. It is a relic of the glacial times, most recently between approximately 25,000 and 10,000 years ago, when cold windy treeless steppes covered much of south-eastern Australia. Now the habitat and its plants and animals survive only on a few high isolated mountain islands.
The actual tree-line can be quite dramatic.
|Tree line at around 1850masl, Kosciuszko NP.|
|Tree line at 1000masl, near Puerto Natales, southern Chile.|