|An idea of how the entire world looked until about 360 million years ago, when the evolution|
of the seed allowed plants to colonise the forbidding wastelands.
Lava fields, Bartolomé, Galápagos.
|Black Cypress Pine Callitris enlicheri, Family Cupressaceae, Cooma, New South Wales.|
Female (large woody) and male (small and pale brown) cones.
|Archaefructus liaoningensis, one of the oldest known flowering plant fossils.|
Courtesy Wiki Commons.
|Beetle on Xanthorrhoea flower spike.|
The early beetles weren't the ideal carriers, relatively clumsy, hard-shelled and (it has been
unkindly suggested) not all that bright!
|Native Bee on Xerochrysum sp., National Botanic Gardens, Canberra.|
The underside of the body, especially the thorax, is covered with yellow pollen,
sticking to the hairs.
|Fly, family Acroceridae (thanks Susan!), on Xerochrysum sp., National Botanic Gardens, Canberra.|
Pollen can be seen adhering to the legs.
|See-through butterfly on daisy, Milpe Reserve, north-west of Quito, Ecuador.|
|Male Australian Yellow Admiral Vanessa itea on Xerochrysum sp., National Botanic Gardens, Canberra. Note coiled proboscis.|
|Hoverfly, Syrphidae, on Bulbine bulbosa, Asphodeliaceae, Canberra.|
As it accesses the energy treat in the nectary, it is encountering the pollen
on the fluffy anthers and the waiting club-like female stigmas.